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IJPR 9[3] July - September 2017 Special Issue

July - September 9[3] 2017

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Diagnostic Algorithm Of Covid 19 Screening And Testing - A Review.

Abstract: Covid 19 is a fast spreading pandemic which is threatening the world now. It is an invisible enemy against which the whole world is fighting. The virus is a protein enveloped with fat molecules. It has spike proteins on the envelope. These spike proteins are mainly responsible for causing the disease. The virus mostly causes respiratory problems like breathlessness, associated with cold and cough along with intermittent fever. They mainly affect elderly people with low immunity and people with medical conditions like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension and other medical conditions. They pose greater risk of infection. It is very important to diagnose and test people to detect the presence of infection. In this way, it can help us to stop the spread of infection and also provide appropriate treatment at the exact time to patients. Covid 19 has created a major impact on laboratories for several months due to the outbreak and the need for testing to detect the presence of the pathogen. There are many techniques to diagnose covid 19 such as the PCR technique which is very specific as they determine target genes. We also have antigen and antibody tests which are useful in diagnosis but they also face disadvantages like time to produce antibodies and antigens from escaping the antibodies. The serological testing is specific as they determine the level of certain enzymes like the liver enzymes gamma glutamyl transferase and other enzymes (Kadiyala and Savitha 2018, Preetha and Others 2016). The basic level of covid diagnosis is the thermal screening test which normally takes place in airports and railway stations. They identify people which is the most important and basic level. Sometimes they may not be reliable which serves as a disadvantage. In the preanalytical stage of diagnosis, proper respiratory tract specimens have to be collected from the right anatomical site of our human body to arrive at a proper diagnosis. Appropriate training is essential for the technicians so that they can produce reliable test results. In the analytic stage, real time reverse transcription - PCR (RT -PCR) assays were considered as the choice of test for diagnosis. In the post analytical stage, testing results should be carefully interpreted using molecular and serological findings.
Keyword: Antibody test, Covid-19, Rapid diagnostic test kits, Sensitivity and specificity of test.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2021.13.01.268
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